The twenty first century started as “the century of cellular therapy”. The use of these two revolutionary sciences - stem cells and nanotechnology - can be associated to promote tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, South Brazil, the Hematology and Stem Cell Laboratory uses the electrospinning technique to produce biodegradable and biocompatible scaffolds, which are used to cultivate stem cells for basic and pre-clinical studies. In this laboratory, pluripotent and adult stem cells are cultivated and tested for different proposals. These stem cells, with or without their association with electrospun scaffolds, are implanted in several different animal models of diseases. The experimental studies developed in this laboratory, in association with a number of other laboratories, include the treatment of spinal cord injury, stroke, peripheral nerve, as well as the promotion of the regeneration of cartilage, bone, vessels, skin and other tissue. Bioreactors are being produced to promote the dynamic cultivation of the stem cells in the scaffolds. Recently, the laboratory also began to use scaffolds produced by 3D printer to be used as a support for stem cell cultivation.